Novel adjuvant formulations for delivery of anti-tuberculosis vaccine candidates

Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2016 Jul 1;102:73-82. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2015.11.012. Epub 2015 Nov 17.


There is an urgent need for a new and improved vaccine against tuberculosis for controlling this disease that continues to pose a global health threat. The current research strategy is to replace the present BCG vaccine or boost BCG-immunity with subunit vaccines such as viral vectored- or protein-based vaccines. The use of recombinant proteins holds a number of production advantages including ease of scalability, but requires an adjuvant inducing cell-mediated immune responses. A number of promising novel adjuvant formulations have recently been designed and show evidence of induction of cellular immune responses in humans. A common trait of effective TB adjuvants including those already in current clinical testing is a two-component approach combining a delivery system with an appropriate immunomodulator. This review summarizes the status of current TB adjuvant research with a focus on the division of labor between delivery systems and immunomodulators.

Keywords: BCG boost vaccine; Delivery systems; Dual-component adjuvants; Immunomodulators; Long-term memory; Mucosal adjuvants; PAMPs; Tuberculosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic*
  • BCG Vaccine
  • Drug Compounding
  • Humans
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Tuberculosis / prevention & control*
  • Tuberculosis Vaccines*


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • BCG Vaccine
  • Tuberculosis Vaccines