Extrahepatic Manifestations of Hepatitis C Virus

Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2015 Dec;44(4):775-91. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2015.07.006. Epub 2015 Aug 12.


Chronic infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease worldwide and is also responsible for extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) involving the skin, kidneys, salivary glands, eyes, thyroid, and immune system. Mixed cryoglobulinemia is the prototype EHM related to HCV infection. Although these HCV-related EHMs may contribute to significant rates of morbidity affecting patient's quality of life and survival, most of these complications can reverse after HCV eradication by interferon therapy. This notwithstanding, individual patients may have an irreversible injury in various organs that is not reversed by a cure of the HCV infection.

Keywords: B-cell non–Hodgkin lymphoma; Cryoglobulins; Extrahepatic manifestations; HCV; Interferon.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Hepatitis C / complications*
  • Hepatitis C / drug therapy
  • Hepatitis C / physiopathology
  • Humans


  • Antiviral Agents