The impact of sugar sweetened beverage intake on hunger and satiety in minority adolescents

Appetite. 2016 Feb 1;97:43-8. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2015.11.015. Epub 2015 Dec 1.


Limited research has examined the effects of habitual SSB consumption on hunger/fullness ratings and gut hormones. This study hypothesized that high versus low intakes of habitual SSBs would result in greater hunger, decreased fullness, and a blunted gut hormone response, however the high versus low fiber group would exhibit decreased hunger and increased fullness. This was a randomized crossover feeding trial with 47 African American and Hispanic adolescents. The experiment included three 24-hour recalls to assess habitual dietary intake. During the test meal phase, subjects were served breakfast and lunch. During the ad libitum meal phase, subjects were fed an ad libitum dinner. During the test meal phase, blood was drawn every 30 minutes for 3 hours. During the ad libitum meal phase, hunger and fullness visual analogue scales were completed. For this analysis, subjects were grouped into the following habitual SSB categories: low SSB (≤1 SSB serv/day), medium SSB (>1 - <2 serv/day), and high SSB (≥2 serv/day). Fiber categories were created based on quartiles of intake. Mixed modeling was used to explore how SSB and fiber categories predicted ghrelin/PYY values and hunger/fullness ratings across time within and between test meals. The following a priori covariates included: sex, ethnicity, age, and obesity status. The low SSB group had higher fullness ratings over the ad libitum meal compared to the high SSB group (β =-0.49, CI=(-0.89, -0.08), p=0.02) and higher ghrelin concentrations than the medium and high SSB group over the test meal phase (β =-1.86, CI=(-2.81, -0.92), p<0.01). Habitual SSB intake appears to play a key role in moderating fullness responses possibly via ghrelin.

Keywords: Fullness; Ghrelin; Minority youth; Satiety; Sugar sweetened beverage.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Appetite / physiology*
  • Beverages / analysis*
  • Black or African American
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Fiber / administration & dosage
  • Energy Intake
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Ghrelin / blood
  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Meals
  • Nutritive Sweeteners / administration & dosage*
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Peptide YY / blood
  • Satiation / physiology*


  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Ghrelin
  • Nutritive Sweeteners
  • Peptide YY