Associations between diet and cardiometabolic risk among Yup'ik Alaska Native people using food frequency questionnaire dietary patterns

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 Dec;25(12):1140-5. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2015.08.003. Epub 2015 Aug 21.


Background and aims: In previous analyses, we identified three dietary patterns from food frequency questionnaire data among a sample of Yup'ik Alaska Native people living in Southwest Alaska: a "subsistence foods" dietary pattern and two market-based dietary patterns "processed foods" and "fruits and vegetables". In this analysis, we aimed to characterize the association between the dietary patterns and cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors (lipids, blood pressure, glucose, adiposity).

Methods and results: We used multilevel linear regression to estimate the mean of each CM risk factor, comparing participants in the 4th to the 1st quartile of each dietary pattern (n = 637). Models were adjusted for age, sex, past smoking, current smoking, and physical activity. Mean log triglyceride levels were significantly higher among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the processed foods dietary pattern (β = 0.11). Mean HbA1c percent was significantly lower (β = -0.08) and mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) mm Hg was significantly higher (β = 2.87) among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the fruits and vegetables dietary pattern. Finally, mean log triglyceride levels and mean DBP mm Hg were significantly lower among participants in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile of the subsistence foods dietary pattern (β = -0.10 and β = -3.99 respectively).

Conclusions: We found increased CM risk, as reflected by increased triglycerides, associated with eating a greater frequency of processed foods, and reduced CM risk, as reflected by lower triglycerides and DBP, associated with eating a greater frequency of subsistence foods.

Keywords: Alaska Native; Cardiometabolic; Dietary pattern; FFQ; Food frequency questionnaire; Yup'ik.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Alaska / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet Records*
  • Diet*
  • Feeding Behavior / ethnology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inuits
  • Life Style
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / prevention & control
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Risk Assessment
  • Sex Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires