Universal immunization of infants and toddlers with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines over the last 15 years has dramatically altered the landscape of pneumococcal disease. Decreases in invasive pneumococcal disease, all-cause pneumonia, empyema, mastoiditis, acute otitis media, and complicated otitis media have been reported from multiple countries in which universal immunization has been implemented. Children with comorbid conditions have higher rates of pneumococcal disease and increased case fatality rates compared with otherwise healthy children, and protection for the most vulnerable pediatric patients will require new strategies to address the underlying host susceptibility and the expanded spectrum of serotypes observed.
Keywords: Invasive pneumococcal disease; Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; Pneumococcal disease; Pneumococcal meningitis; Pneumococcal pneumonia.
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