Tumors of the Testis: Morphologic Features and Molecular Alterations

Surg Pathol Clin. 2015 Dec;8(4):687-716. doi: 10.1016/j.path.2015.07.007.


This article reviews the most frequently encountered tumor of the testis; pure and mixed malignant testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), with emphasis on adult (postpubertal) TGCTs and their differential diagnoses. We additionally review TGCT in the postchemotherapy setting, and findings to be integrated into the surgical pathology report, including staging of testicular tumors and other problematic issues. The clinical features, gross pathologic findings, key histologic features, common differential diagnoses, the use of immunohistochemistry, and molecular alterations in TGCTs are discussed.

Keywords: Embryonal; Germ cell tumor; Seminoma; Teratoma; Testis; Yolk-sac tumor; i12p.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Humans
  • Karyotype
  • Male
  • Mutation
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Neoplasm, Residual / pathology
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology*
  • Seminoma / genetics
  • Seminoma / pathology
  • Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Testicular Neoplasms / genetics
  • Testicular Neoplasms / pathology*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor

Supplementary concepts

  • Nonseminomatous germ cell tumor
  • Testicular Germ Cell Tumor