Association between leukaemia inhibitory factor gene polymorphism and pregnancy outcomes after assisted reproduction techniques

Reprod Biomed Online. 2016 Jan;32(1):66-78. doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2015.09.018. Epub 2015 Oct 23.


Certain gene polymorphisms are associated with implantation failure and pregnancy loss. Studies of leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) gene polymorphisms are scarce. The LIF single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) thymine (T)/guanine (G) (rs929271) was studied in women to determine whether an association existed with pregnancy outcomes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI); 411 women who underwent ICSI were recruited. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood, and the LIF gene SNP T/G (rs929271) was genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Participants were divided into three groups according to their LIF genotype: T/T (n = 168), T/G (n = 202) and G/G (n = 41). All IVF and ICSI procedures were carried out under the same clinical and laboratory conditions. The ICSI cumulative results (from fresh plus frozen cycles) of each genotype group were analysed. The G/G genotype in women was associated with a higher implantation rate (T/T: 15.9%, T/G: 16.2%, G/G: 27.0%; P < 0.05), ongoing pregnancy rate/patient (T/T: 31.5%, T/G: 36.1%, G/G: 53.7%; P < 0.05) and ongoing pregnancy rate/transfer (T/T: 18.5%, T/G: 20.2%, G/G: 36.7%; P < 0.05). LIF SNP T/G (rs929271) seems to be a susceptibility biomarker capable of predicting implantation efficiency and pregnancy outcomes.

Keywords: LIF T/G (rs929271) polymorphism; implantation; pregnancy; single nucleotide polymorphism; women's genotype.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Embryo Implantation / genetics
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Infertility / epidemiology
  • Infertility / genetics
  • Infertility / therapy
  • Leukemia Inhibitory Factor / genetics*
  • Middle Aged
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome / epidemiology
  • Pregnancy Outcome / genetics*
  • Pregnancy Rate
  • Reproductive Techniques, Assisted* / statistics & numerical data


  • LIF protein, human
  • Leukemia Inhibitory Factor