Interneurons in the human olfactory system in Alzheimer's disease

Exp Neurol. 2016 Feb;276:13-21. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2015.11.009. Epub 2015 Nov 23.


The principal olfactory structures display Alzheimer's disease (AD) related pathology at early stages of the disease. Consequently, olfactory deficits are among the earliest symptoms. Reliable olfactory tests for accurate clinical diagnosis are rarely made. In addition, neuropathological analysis postmortem of olfactory structures is often not made. Therefore, the relationship between the clinical features and the underlying pathology is poorly defined. Traditionally, research into Alzheimer's disease has focused on the degeneration of cortical temporal projection neurons and cholinergic neurons. Recent evidence has demonstrated the neurodegeneration of interneuron populations in AD. This review provides an updated overview of the pathological involvement of interneuron populations in the human olfactory system in Alzheimer's disease.

Keywords: Amyloid-β; Archicortex; Calcium binding protein; Somatostatin; Tau.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease / metabolism
  • Alzheimer Disease / pathology*
  • Cholinergic Neurons / metabolism
  • Cholinergic Neurons / pathology
  • Humans
  • Interneurons / metabolism
  • Interneurons / pathology*
  • Olfactory Pathways / metabolism
  • Olfactory Pathways / pathology*
  • Olfactory Receptor Neurons / metabolism
  • Olfactory Receptor Neurons / pathology*
  • Smell / physiology