Data are limited on the effectiveness and safety of peginterferon plus ribavirin in HIV-infected Asian patients with acute or chronic HCV infection. HIV-infected Taiwanese patients with acute HCV infection received peginterferon plus weight-based ribavirin for 24 weeks (n = 24), and those with chronic HCV genotype 1 or 6 (HCV-1/6) and HCV genotype 2 or 3 (HCV-2/3) infection received response-guided therapy for 12-72 and 24-48 weeks, respectively (n = 92). The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response (SVR), defined as undetectable HCV RNA 24 weeks off-therapy. The SVR rates were 83% and 72% in patients with acute and chronic HCV infection (p = 0.30), and 68% and 72% in patients with chronic HCV-1/6 and HCV-2/3 infection (p = 0.48), respectively. While no factors predicted SVR in acute HCV and chronic HCV-2/3 infection, age (odds ratio [OR] per 1-year increase: 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78-0.99, p = 0.04), HCV RNA (OR per 1-log10 increase: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.03-0.98, p = 0.03), IL28B genotype (OR: 5.52, 95% CI: 1.55-12.2, p = 0.02), and RVR (OR: 9.62, 95% CI: 3.89-15.3, p = 0.007) predicted SVR in chronic HCV-1/6 infection. In conclusion, the SVR rates of peginterferon plus ribavirin for 24 weeks and for response-guided 12-72 weeks are satisfactory in HIV-infected Taiwanese patients with acute and chronic HCV infection.