Phosphatidylcholine, an edible carrier for nanoencapsulation of unstable thiamine

Food Chem. 2016 Apr 15;197(Pt A):562-70. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.11.005. Epub 2015 Nov 2.


Lipid nanoparticles have been used for carrying different therapeutic agents because of the advantage in improved absorption, bioavailability, targeted deliveries and reduction in the quantity of drugs required. The aim of the study was to prepare and characterize nanoliposomes containing thiamine hydrochloride and study their physicochemical stability as this vitamin is highly unstable. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) was used as an edible encapsulant. The average size of nanoliposomes was found to be 150 nm and zeta potential was -34 mV. The encapsulation efficiency was 97%. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the size, spherical nature and smooth surface of the nanoliposomes. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) evidenced that the nanoliposomes were stable up to 300°C. The functional groups present were determined by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the presence of vitamin was confirmed in final formulation by biochemical analysis. The crystalline nature of thiamine was analyzed by X-ray diffraction studies. Storage studies indicated that the nanoliposomes were highly stable up to 3 months at different temperatures. Thus, phosphatidylcholine can be used as carrier vehicle of nutrients especially vitamins, as it can form stable nanoliposomes with 97% encapsulation efficiency.

Keywords: Nanoliposomes; Phosphatidylcholine; Thiamine.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Calorimetry, Differential Scanning
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical / instrumentation
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical / methods*
  • Drug Delivery Systems
  • Excipients / chemistry*
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Nanoparticles / chemistry*
  • Phosphatidylcholines / chemistry*
  • Thiamine / chemistry*
  • X-Ray Diffraction


  • Excipients
  • Phosphatidylcholines
  • Thiamine