Validation of Analytical Conditions for Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Roasted Coffee by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Food Chem. 2016 Apr 15;197(Pt A):747-53. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.10.135. Epub 2015 Nov 5.


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of significant interest due to their genotoxicity in humans. PAHs quantification in coffee is complex since some of its compounds interfere in the chromatographic analysis, which hinders the reliable determination of the PAHs. Analytical conditions for the ultrasound extraction, purification and quantification of 16 PAHs in roasted coffee were studied. The better extraction efficiency of benzo[a]pyrene (68%) from ground-roasted coffee was achieved with a solvent ratio of Hex:MC (9:1 v/v) and three extraction periods of 20 min, followed by alkaline saponification and purification of the extracts. The detection limits were 0.85-39.32 ng mL(-1), and the quantification limits from 2.84 to 131.05 ng mL(-1), obtained for fluoranthene and chrysene, respectively. The extraction was effective for most of the analytes, with recoveries of 39.8% dibenzo[ah]anthracene and 69.0% benzo[b]fluoranthene. For coffee roasted in a spouted bed reactor, the summation of the 16 PAHs ranged from 3.5 to 16.4 μg kg(-1).

Keywords: Benzo[a]anthracene (PubChem CID: 5954); Benzo[a]pyrene (PubChem CID: 2336); Benzo[b]fluoranthene (PubChem CID: 9153); Benzo[ghi]perylene (PubChem CID: 9117); Benzo[k]fluoranthene (PubChem CID: 9158); Chrysene (PubChem CID: 9171); Dibenzo[ah]anthracene (PubChem CID: 5889); GC–MS; Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (PubChem CID: 13757897); PAHs; Purification; Roasted coffee; Ultrasound extraction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Benzo(a)pyrene / analysis
  • Chrysenes / analysis
  • Coffee / chemistry*
  • Fluorenes / analysis
  • Food Analysis / instrumentation
  • Food Analysis / methods*
  • Food Contamination / analysis*
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry / methods*
  • Humans
  • Limit of Detection
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons / analysis*


  • Chrysenes
  • Coffee
  • Fluorenes
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • chrysene
  • Benzo(a)pyrene
  • fluoranthene
  • benzo(b)fluoranthene