The role of hyperthermia as a treatment for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2016;16(2):189-98. doi: 10.1586/14737140.2016.1126515. Epub 2015 Dec 19.


Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a high tendency for recurrence and progression. Currently, all known intravesical agents are associated with adverse effects (AEs) and limited efficacy. The combination of hyperthermia (HT) with intravesical Mitomycin C (MMC) chemotherapy has been shown to improve outcomes. The added efficacy of HT to MMC was first shown in preclinical studies. The reports on patients with NMIBC have indicated that the treatment is safe and well tolerated. Several clinical studies reported the efficacy of radiofrequency-induced chemotherapy effect (RITE) in the treatment of patients with NMIBC. This modality was shown to be superior to MMC alone. RITE was effective also in patients with high-risk NMIBC, including those who failed Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). This study provides an updated review of literature regarding the use of RITE in patients with NMIBC.

Keywords: Radiofrequency induced chemotherapy effect (RITE); chemo-hyperthermia; hyperthermia; intravesical chemotherapy; mitomycin C; non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intravesical
  • Animals
  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage
  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects
  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermia, Induced / adverse effects
  • Hyperthermia, Induced / methods*
  • Mitomycin / administration & dosage*
  • Mitomycin / adverse effects
  • Mitomycin / therapeutic use
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy*


  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
  • Mitomycin