The Differential Diagnosis of Sinonasal/Nasopharyngeal Neuroendocrine/Neuroectodermally Derived Tumors

Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2015 Dec;139(12):1498-507. doi: 10.5858/arpa.2014-0383-RA.


Context: The differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasms arising in the sinonasal tract is broad and includes lesions of epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal origin.

Objective: To review the differential diagnosis of sinonasal neuroendocrine and neuroectodermally derived tumors.

Data sources: The current literature was reviewed to provide updated information regarding the differential diagnosis and means for diagnosing neuroendocrine tumors including sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma, olfactory neuroblastoma, malignant melanoma, paraganglioma, pituitary adenoma, and Ewing family of tumors.

Conclusions: The differential diagnosis of neoplasms with neuroendocrine differentiation in the sinonasal tract is broad, and diagnosis often includes not only histologic review but also immunohistochemical or molecular analysis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenoma / classification
  • Adenoma / diagnosis*
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / classification
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Melanoma / classification
  • Melanoma / diagnosis
  • Nasal Cavity
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / classification
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis*
  • Nose Neoplasms / classification
  • Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Paraganglioma / classification
  • Paraganglioma / diagnosis
  • Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / classification
  • Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Pituitary Neoplasms / classification
  • Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis*