Background: The objective of this study was to demonstrate that computer-extracted image phenotypes (CEIPs) of biopsy-proven breast cancer on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can accurately predict pathologic stage.
Methods: The authors used a data set of deidentified breast MRIs organized by the National Cancer Institute in The Cancer Imaging Archive. In total, 91 biopsy-proven breast cancers were analyzed from patients who had information available on pathologic stage (stage I, n = 22; stage II, n = 58; stage III, n = 11) and surgically verified lymph node status (negative lymph nodes, n = 46; ≥ 1 positive lymph node, n = 44; no lymph nodes examined, n = 1). Tumors were characterized according to 1) radiologist-measured size and 2) CEIP. Then, models were built that combined 2 CEIPs to predict tumor pathologic stage and lymph node involvement, and the models were evaluated in a leave-1-out, cross-validation analysis with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) as the value of interest.
Results: Tumor size was the most powerful predictor of pathologic stage, but CEIPs that captured biologic behavior also emerged as predictive (eg, stage I and II vs stage III demonstrated an AUC of 0.83). No size measure was successful in the prediction of positive lymph nodes, but adding a CEIP that described tumor "homogeneity" significantly improved discrimination (AUC = 0.62; P = .003) compared with chance.
Conclusions: The current results indicate that MRI phenotypes have promise for predicting breast cancer pathologic stage and lymph node status. Cancer 2016;122:748-757. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
Keywords: breast cancer stage; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); prognosis; quantitative image analysis.
© 2015 American Cancer Society.