Impact of a Prospective-Audit-With-Feedback Antimicrobial Stewardship Program at a Children's Hospital

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2012 Sep;1(3):179-86. doi: 10.1093/jpids/pis054. Epub 2012 Jul 12.


Background: The emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms and the lack of development of new antimicrobials have made it imperative that additional strategies be developed to maintain the effectiveness of these existing antibiotics. The objective of this study was to describe the impact of a prospective-audit-with-feedback antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) on antibiotic use in a children's hospital.

Method: A quasi-experimental study design with a control group was performed to assess the impact of a prospective-audit-with-feedback ASP. The control group was the combined antibiotic use at 25 similar children's hospitals that are members of the Child Health Corporation of America.

Results: The ASP reviewed 10 460 broad-spectrum or select antibiotics in 8765 patients in the 30 months following the intervention. The most common select antibiotics reviewed were ceftriaxone/cefotaxime (43%), vancomycin (18%), ceftazidime (12%), and meropenem (7%). A total of 2378 recommendations were made in 1703 (19%) patients; the most common recommendation was to stop antibiotics (41%). Clinicians were compliant with agreed-upon ASP recommendations in 92% of patients. When comparing our antibiotic use with that of the control group, a monthly decline in all antibiotics of 7% (P = .045) and 8% (P = .045) was observed for days of therapy (DoT) and length of therapy (LoT) per 1000 patient-days, respectively. An even greater effect was observed in the select antibiotics as the monthly DoT per 1000 patient-days declined 17% (P < .001) and the monthly LoT per 1000 patient-days declined 18% (P < .001).

Conclusions: A prospective-audit-with-feedback ASP can have a significant impact on decreasing antibiotic use at a children's hospital.

Keywords: Antimicrobial Stewardship; Children's Hospitals; Prospective Audit; Time Series.