Characterization of 137 Genomic DNA Reference Materials for 28 Pharmacogenetic Genes: A GeT-RM Collaborative Project

J Mol Diagn. 2016 Jan;18(1):109-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jmoldx.2015.08.005. Epub 2015 Nov 24.


Pharmacogenetic testing is increasingly available from clinical laboratories. However, only a limited number of quality control and other reference materials are currently available to support clinical testing. To address this need, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-based Genetic Testing Reference Material Coordination Program, in collaboration with members of the pharmacogenetic testing community and the Coriell Cell Repositories, has characterized 137 genomic DNA samples for 28 genes commonly genotyped by pharmacogenetic testing assays (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP4F2, DPYD, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, NAT1, NAT2, SLC15A2, SLC22A2, SLCO1B1, SLCO2B1, TPMT, UGT1A1, UGT2B7, UGT2B15, UGT2B17, and VKORC1). One hundred thirty-seven Coriell cell lines were selected based on ethnic diversity and partial genotype characterization from earlier testing. DNA samples were coded and distributed to volunteer testing laboratories for targeted genotyping using a number of commercially available and laboratory developed tests. Through consensus verification, we confirmed the presence of at least 108 variant pharmacogenetic alleles. These samples are also being characterized by other pharmacogenetic assays, including next-generation sequencing, which will be reported separately. Genotyping results were consistent among laboratories, with most differences in allele assignments attributed to assay design and variability in reported allele nomenclature, particularly for CYP2D6, UGT1A1, and VKORC1. These publicly available samples will help ensure the accuracy of pharmacogenetic testing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics*
  • Cell Line
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics*
  • Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions / genetics*
  • Genetic Testing
  • Genotype
  • Genotyping Techniques
  • Glucuronosyltransferase / genetics*
  • Glutathione Transferase / genetics*
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Humans
  • Pharmacogenetics / methods*
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • United States


  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Glucuronosyltransferase
  • Glutathione Transferase