Comparison of fluoride effects on germination and growth of Zea mays, Glycine max and Sorghum vulgare

J Sci Food Agric. 2016 Aug;96(11):3679-87. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.7551. Epub 2016 Jan 12.


Background: Fluorosis is a disease caused by over-exposure to fluoride (F). Argentina's rural lands have higher fluorine content than urban lands. Evidence confirms that plants grown in fluoridated areas could have higher F content. We compared F uptake and growth of crops grown in different F concentrations. The effect of 0-8 ppm F concentrations on maize, soybeans and sorghum germination and growth was compared. After 6 days seeding, the germination was determined, the roots and aerial parts lengths were measured, and vigor index was calculated. F content was measured in each part of the plants. Controls with equal concentrations of NaCl were carried out.

Results: Significant decrease in roots and aerial parts lengths, and in vigor index of maize and soybeans plants was observed with F concentrations greater than 2 ppm. This was not observed in sorghum seedlings. Also, the amount of F in all crops augmented as F increases, being higher in roots and ungerminated seeds. Sorghum was the crop with the highest F content.

Conclusion: Fluoride decreased the germination and growth of maize and soybeans and therefore could influence on their production. Conversely, sorghum seems to be resistant to the action of F. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

Keywords: Glycine max; Sorghum vulgare; Zea mays; crop; fluoride; germination.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Agriculture
  • Argentina
  • Fluorides / metabolism*
  • Germination*
  • Glycine max / growth & development
  • Glycine max / metabolism*
  • Plant Components, Aerial / growth & development
  • Plant Components, Aerial / metabolism*
  • Plant Roots / growth & development
  • Plant Roots / metabolism*
  • Sorghum / growth & development
  • Sorghum / metabolism*
  • Zea mays / growth & development
  • Zea mays / metabolism*


  • Fluorides