Pregnancy Outcomes in Youth With Type 2 Diabetes: The TODAY Study Experience

Diabetes Care. 2016 Jan;39(1):122-9. doi: 10.2337/dc15-1206. Epub 2015 Dec 1.


Objective: We evaluated pregnancy outcomes, maternal and fetal/neonatal, during the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study.

Research design and methods: The TODAY study was a randomized controlled trial comparing three treatment options for youth with type 2 diabetes. Informed consent included the requirement for contraception, including abstinence; this was reinforced at each visit. Following informed consent, self-reported data related to the mother's prenatal care and delivery and the infant's health were retrospectively collected. When permitted, maternal medical records and infant birth records were reviewed.

Results: Of the 452 enrolled female participants, 46 (10.2%) had 63 pregnancies. Despite continued emphasis on adequate contraception, only 4.8% of the pregnant participants reported using contraception prior to pregnancy. The mean age at first pregnancy was 18.4 years; the mean diabetes duration was 3.17 years. Seven pregnancies were electively terminated; three pregnancies had no data reported. Of the remaining 53 pregnancies, 5 (9.4%) resulted in early pregnancy loss, and 7 (13%) resulted in loss with inadequate pregnancy duration data. Two pregnancies ended in stillbirth, at 27 and 37 weeks, and 39 ended with a live-born infant. Of the live-born infants, six (15.4%) were preterm and eight (20.5%) had a major congenital anomaly.

Conclusions: Despite diabetes-specific information recommending birth control and the avoidance of pregnancy, 10% of the study participants became pregnant. Pregnancies in youth with type 2 diabetes may be especially prone to result in congenital anomalies. Reasons for the high rate of congenital anomalies are uncertain, but may include poor metabolic control and extreme obesity.

Trial registration: NCT00081328.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Delivery, Obstetric
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Patient Compliance
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome*
  • Pregnancy in Diabetics / epidemiology*
  • Prenatal Care
  • Stillbirth

Associated data


Grant support