Rationale: Low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) may be caused by rate-limiting amounts of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). Raising LCAT may be beneficial for CHD, as well as for familial LCAT deficiency, a rare disorder of low HDL-C.
Objective: To determine safety and tolerability of recombinant human LCAT infusion in subjects with stable CHD and low HDL-C and its effect on plasma lipoproteins.
Methods and results: A phase 1b, open-label, single-dose escalation study was conducted to evaluate safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of recombinant human LCAT (ACP-501). Four cohorts with stable CHD and low HDL-C were dosed (0.9, 3.0, 9.0, and 13.5 mg/kg, single 1-hour infusions) and followed up for 28 days. ACP-501 was well tolerated, and there were no serious adverse events. Plasma LCAT concentrations were dose-proportional, increased rapidly, and declined with an apparent terminal half-life of 42 hours. The 0.9-mg/kg dose did not significantly change HDL-C; however, 6 hours after doses of 3.0, 9.0, and 13.5 mg/kg, HDL-C was elevated by 6%, 36%, and 42%, respectively, and remained above baseline ≤4 days. Plasma cholesteryl esters followed a similar time course as HDL-C. ACP-501 infusion rapidly decreased small- and intermediate-sized HDL, whereas large HDL increased. Pre-β-HDL also rapidly decreased and was undetectable ≤12 hours post ACP-501 infusion.
Conclusions: ACP-501 has an acceptable safety profile after a single intravenous infusion. Lipid and lipoprotein changes indicate that recombinant human LCAT favorably alters HDL metabolism and support recombinant human LCAT use in future clinical trials in CHD and familial LCAT deficiency patients.
Clinical trial registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01554800.
Keywords: acute coronary syndrome; cardiovascular diseases; cholesterol; cholesterol, HDL; lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase; lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency.
© 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.