Introduction: Osteoarthritis of the shoulder often results in significant posterior glenoid wear. The options for treating this have been eccentric glenoid reaming and occasionally bone grafting. More recently reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) with or without bone grafting and posterior augmented glenoids (PAGs) has been introduced. The PAG restores the native joint line while reaming a minimal amount of glenoid bone. The purpose of this study is to compare osteoarthritic shoulders with significant posterior glenoid wear treated with anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (aTSA) using a PAG to shoulders without glenoid wear treated with aTSA using a standard all poly pegged glenoid.
Methods: The patients' data in this study were retrospectively queried from prospectively acquired data in a multi-institutional IRB approved database. The study population consisted of 24 patients with osteoarthritis and posterior glenoid wear who were treated with aTSA using a PAG with a minimum of two-year follow-up. This population was age, sex, and follow-up matched to patients treated with an all poly non-augmented pegged glenoid (NAG) for osteoarthritis. Seven females and 17 males with an average age of 65.8 ± 11.5 years received a posterior augmented glenoid. The control group consisted of 7 females and 17 males with an average age of 66.4 ± 9.1 years who underwent aTSA for osteoarthritis using an all poly standard glenoid. These age, gender, and follow-up matched patients were evaluated and scored preoperatively and at latest follow-up using the SST, UCLA, ASES, Constant, and SPADI scoring metrics; active abduction, elevation, and external rotation were also measured. A Grashey and axillary lateral radiograph was evaluated at two-year follow-up. The Shoulder Arthroplasty Subluxation Index was used to determine the degree of humeral component subluxation on the glenoid component. A Student's two-tailed, unpaired t-test was used to identify differences in preoperative and postoperative results, where p < 0.05 denoted a significant difference.
Results: All patients demonstrated significant improvements in pain and function with the primary aTSA. Sixty per-cent of PAG shoulders had a radiolucent line with an average radiographic line score of 1.10, and 33.3% of NAG had a radiolucent line with an average radiographic line score of 0.438. One glenoid in the PAG group is radiographically but not clinically loose. In the PAG group, the Grashey view showed that 18/20 humeral heads were centered with the two remaining joints demonstrating superior subluxation. On the axillary lateral in the PAG group, 17/20 humeral heads were centered, and three were anteriorly subluxated; none were posteriorly subluxated. There were no differences in any of the measured postoperative clinical outcomes or any difference in improvement between the two groups.
Discussion: At a minimum of two-year follow-up, there were no statistical clinical differences between the PAG and NAG groups despite the PAG group being disadvantaged with posterior worn glenoids. There were no revisions in either group. No humeral heads resubluxated posteriorly. The PAG group had a higher incidence of lucent lines. Based on this short-term follow-up, a posterior augmented glenoid is a viable option for the posterior worn osteoarthritic glenoid.