Ten Years of Routine α- and β-Globin Gene Sequencing in UK Hemoglobinopathy Referrals Reveals 60 Novel Mutations

Hemoglobin. 2016;40(2):75-84. doi: 10.3109/03630269.2015.1113990. Epub 2015 Dec 4.


We review and report here the genotypes and phenotypes of 60 novel thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobin (Hb) mutations discovered following the adoption of routine DNA sequencing of both α- and β-globin genes for all UK hemoglobinopathy samples referred for molecular investigation. This screening strategy over the last 10 years has revealed a total of 11 new β chain variants, 15 α chain variants, 19 β-thalassemia (β-thal) mutations and 15 α(+)-thalassemia (α(+)-thal) mutations. The large number of new thalassemia alleles confirms the wide racial heterogeneity of mutations in the UK immigrant population. Eleven of the new variants ran with Hb A on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), demonstrating the value of routine sequencing of both α- and β-globin genes for all hemoglobinopathy investigations. The new β chain variants are: Hb Bury [β22(B4)Glu → Asp (HBB: c.69A > T)], Hb Fulwood [β35(C1)Tyr → His (HBB: c.106T > C)], Hb Little Venice [β42(CD1)Phe → Cys (HBB: c.128T > G)], Hb Cork [β57(E1)Asn → Ser (HBB: c.173A > G), Hb Basingstoke [β118(GH1)Phe → Ser (HBB: c.356T > C)], Hb Howden [β20(B2)Val → Ala (HBB: c.62T > C)], Hb Wilton [β41(C7)Phe → Leu (HBB: c.126C > A)], Hb Belsize Park [β120(GH3)Lys → Asn (HBB: c.363A > T)], Hb Hampstead Heath [β2(NA2)His → Gln;β26(B8)Glu → Lys (HBB: c.[6C > G;79G > A])], Hb Grantham [β85(F1)Phe → Cys (HBB: c.257T > G)] and Hb Calgary [β64(E8)Gly → Val (HBB: c.194G > T). The new α chain variants are: Hb Edinburgh [α70(E19)Val → Gly (HBA2: c.212T > G)], Hb Walsgrave [α116(GH4)Glu → Val (HBA2: c.350A > T)], Hb Wexham [α117(GH5) and 118(H1) insertion Ser (HBA1: c.354-355insTCA)], Hb Coombe Park [α127(H10)Lys → Glu (HBA2: c.382A > G)], Hb Oxford [α17(A15)Val → Asp (HBA2: c.53T > A)], Hb Bridlington [α32(B13)Met → Thr (HBA1: c.98T > C), Hb Wolverhampton [α81(F2)Ser → Tyr (HBA2: c.9245C > A)], Hb Little Waltham [α13(A11)Ala → Asp (HBA2: c.41C > A)], Hb Derby [α61(E10)Lys → Arg (HBA1: c.185A > G)], Hb Uttoxter [α74(EF3)Tyr → Asp (HBA2: c.223G > T)], Hb Harehills [α124(H7)Ser → Cys (HBA1: c.374C > G)], Hb Hekinan II [α27(B8)Glu → Asp (HBA1: c.84G > T)], Hb Manitoba IV [α102(G9)Ser → Arg (HBA1: c.307A > C), Hb Witham [α139(HC1)Lys → Arg (HBA2: c.419A > G) and Hb Farnborough [α9(A7)Asn → Asp (HBA1: c.28A > G). In addition, 10 more paralogous α-globin chain variants have been discovered. The novel β-thal alleles are: HBB: c.-138C > G, HBB: c.-121C > T, HBB: c.-80T > G, HBB: c.18_19delTG, HBB: c.219_220insT, HBB: c.315 + 2_315 + 13delTGAGTCTATGGG, HBB: c.316-70C > G, HBB: c.345_346insTGTGCTG, HBB: c.354delC, HBB: c.376-381delCCAGTG, HBB: c.393T > A, HBB: c.394_395insA, HBB: c.375_376insA, HBB: c.*+95_*+107delTGGATTCTinsC, HBB: c.* + 111_*+112delAA, HBB: c.*+112A > T, HBB: c.394C > T, HBB: c.271delG and HBB: c.316-3C > T. The novel α (+ )-thal alleles are: HBA1: c.95+1G > C, HBA1: c.315C > G [Hb Donnington, α104(G11)Cys → Trp], HBA1: c.327delC, HBA1: c.333_345del, HBA1: c.*+96G > A, HBA2: c.2T > G, HBA2: c.112delC, HBA2: c.143delA, HBA2: c.143_146delACCT, HBA2: c.156_157insG, HBA2: c.220_223delGTGG, HBA2: c.305T > C [Hb Bishopstown, α101(G8)Leu → His], HBA2: c.169_170delAA, HBA2: c.1A > T and HBA2: c.-3delA.

Keywords: hemoglobin (Hb) variants; novel mutations; sequencing; α-Thalassemia (α-thal); β-thalassemia (β-thal).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Amino Acid Substitution
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Genotype
  • Hemoglobinopathies / diagnosis
  • Hemoglobinopathies / epidemiology
  • Hemoglobinopathies / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Mutation*
  • Phenotype
  • Referral and Consultation
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • United Kingdom / epidemiology
  • alpha-Globins / genetics*
  • alpha-Thalassemia / diagnosis
  • alpha-Thalassemia / epidemiology
  • alpha-Thalassemia / genetics
  • beta-Globins / genetics*
  • beta-Thalassemia / diagnosis
  • beta-Thalassemia / epidemiology
  • beta-Thalassemia / genetics


  • alpha-Globins
  • beta-Globins