Diagnostic Value of Circulating CXC Chemokines in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

Anticancer Res. 2015 Dec;35(12):6979-83.


Background/aim: To evaluate the diagnostic value of circulating CXC chemokines as biomarkers for non-small cell lung cancer and compare them against a standard panel of already existing cancer biomarkers.

Materials and methods: A total of 90 individuals were enrolled in the study. We analyzed 30 patients with stage IA-IIB carcinoma of the lung who underwent pulmonary resection, 30 patients with metastatic NSCLC, and 30 healthy volunteers. The biomarkers levels were measured in plasma blood samples, by ELISA and immunoassays.

Results: The levels of circulating CXCL4, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 were higher and those of circulating CXCL1 were lower in patients with early-stage NSCLC compared to metastatic NSCLC patients and controls (p<0.05). CXCL4, CXCL9 and CXCL11 were included in the panel that showed a sensitivity of 100% versus 60% for CEA, CA125 and CYFRA21-1 (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Combination of CXCL4, CXCL9 and CXCL11 has a high diagnostic value.

Keywords: CXC; Chemokines; NSCLC biomarkers; lung cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / blood
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / diagnosis*
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chemokines, CXC / blood*
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / blood
  • Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sensitivity and Specificity


  • Biomarkers
  • Chemokines, CXC