A shortened interval between vaccinations with the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine increases responsiveness in the aged

Aging (Albany NY). 2015 Dec;7(12):1077-85. doi: 10.18632/aging.100852.


We tested antibody responses to the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in 34 aged individuals (>65 yrs) during the 2012/13 vaccination seasons. Nearly all had been vaccinated the previous year although the time interval between the two vaccine doses differed. One subgroup was re-vaccinated in 2012/13 within 6-9 months of their 2011/12 vaccination, the other received the two doses of vaccine in the typical ~12 month interval. Unexpectedly the sub-cohort with early revaccination exhibited significantly increased response rates and antibody titers to TIV compared to their normally re-vaccinated aged counter parts. Microarray analyses of gene expression in whole blood RNA taken at the day of the 2012/13 re-vaccination revealed statistically significant differences in expression of 754 genes between the individuals with early re-vaccination compared to subjects vaccinated in a normal 12 month interval. These observations suggest that TIV has long-lasting effects on the immune system affecting B cell responses as well as the transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and this residual effect may augment vaccination response in patients where the effect of the previous vaccination has not yet diminished.

Keywords: antibody responses; gene expression arrays; influenza vaccine; timing of vaccination.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood*
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunization Schedule
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype / immunology
  • Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype / immunology
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Influenza, Human / blood
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control*
  • Male


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Influenza Vaccines