Objective: Bariatric surgery results in significant weight loss in the majority of patients. Improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an equally important outcome; however, there are few studies reporting long-term (≥5 years) HRQoL outcomes. This study assesses the quality of evidence and effectiveness of surgery on HRQoL ≥ 5 years.
Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Review, EmBase, CINANL, PsycInfo, obesity conference abstracts, and reference lists were searched. Keywords were bariatric surgery, obesity, and quality of life. Studies were included if (1) there was ≥5 years follow-up, (2) patients had class II or III obesity, (3) individuals completed a validated HRQoL survey, and (4) there was a nonsurgical comparison group with obesity. Two reviewers independently assessed each study.
Results: From 1376 articles, 9 studies were included in the systematic review (SR) and 6 in the meta-analysis (MA). Inconsistent results for long-term improvements in physical and mental health emerged from the SR. In contrast, the MA found significant improvements in these domains ≥5 years after surgery.
Conclusions: Study findings provide evidence for a substantial and significant improvement in physical and mental health favoring the surgical group compared with controls spanning 5 to 25 years after surgery.
© 2015 The Obesity Society.