Introduction: In 2014 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS defined the ambitious 90-90-90 targets for 2020, in which 90% of people living with HIV must be diagnosed, 90% of those diagnosed should be on sustained therapy and 90% of those on therapy should have an undetectable viral load. Children are considered to be a key focus population for these targets. This review will highlight key components of the epidemiology, prevention and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected children in the era of increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and their relation to the 90-90-90 targets.
Discussion: The majority of HIV-infected children live in countries with a high burden of TB. In settings with a high burden of both diseases such as in sub-Saharan Africa, up to 57% of children diagnosed with and treated for TB are HIV-infected. TB results in substantial morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children, so preventing TB and optimizing its treatment in HIV-infected children will be important to ensuring good long-term outcomes. Prevention of TB can be achieved by increasing access to ART to both children and adults, and appropriate provision of isoniazid preventative therapy. Co-treatment of HIV and TB is complicated by drug-drug interactions particularly due to the use of rifampicin; these may compromise virologic outcomes if appropriate corrective actions are not taken. There remain substantial operational challenges, and improved integration of paediatric TB and HIV services, including with antenatal and routine under-five care, is an important priority.
Conclusions: TB may be an important barrier to achievement of the 90-90-90 targets, but specific attention to TB care in HIV-infected children may provide important opportunities to enhance the care of both TB and HIV in children.
Keywords: 90-90-90 target; AIDS; HIV; children; epidemiology; infant; treatment; tuberculosis.