Ion-Current-Based Temporal Proteomic Profiling of Influenza-A-Virus-Infected Mouse Lungs Revealed Underlying Mechanisms of Altered Integrity of the Lung Microvascular Barrier

J Proteome Res. 2016 Feb 5;15(2):540-53. doi: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00927. Epub 2016 Jan 8.


Investigation of influenza-A-virus (IAV)-infected lung proteomes will greatly promote our understanding on the virus-host crosstalk. Using a detergent-cocktail extraction and digestion procedure and a reproducible ion-current-based method, we performed the first comprehensive temporal analysis of mouse IAV infection. Mouse lung tissues at three time points post-inoculation were compared with controls (n = 4/group), and >1600 proteins were quantified without missing value in any animal. Significantly changed proteins were identified at 4 days (n = 144), 7 days (n = 695), and 10 days (n = 396) after infection, with low false altered protein rates (1.73-8.39%). Functional annotation revealed several key biological processes involved in the systemic host responses. Intriguingly, decreased levels of several cell junction proteins as well as increased levels of tissue metalloproteinase MMP9 were observed, reflecting the IAV-induced structural breakdown of lung epithelial barrier. Supporting evidence of MMP9 activation came from immunoassays examining the abundance and phosphorylation states of all MAPKs and several relevant molecules. Importantly, IAV-induced MMP gelatinase expression was suggested to be specific to MMP9, and p38 MAPK may contribute predominantly to MMP9 elevation. These findings help to resolve the long-lasting debate regarding the signaling pathways of IAV-induced MMP9 expression and shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying pulmonary capillary-alveolar leak syndrome that can occur during influenza infection.

Keywords: bottom-up proteomics; host factors; influenza; ion-current-based quantification; microvascular barrier.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood-Air Barrier / metabolism*
  • Blood-Air Barrier / virology
  • Blotting, Western
  • Chromatography, Reverse-Phase
  • Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype / physiology
  • Linear Models
  • Lung / blood supply
  • Lung / metabolism*
  • Lung / virology
  • Male
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / metabolism*
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / virology
  • Proteome / metabolism*
  • Proteomics / methods*


  • Proteome
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9