Gold nanoparticle/multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode as a Sensitive Voltammetric Sensor for the Determination of Diclofenac Sodium

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2016 Feb;59:168-176. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.09.097. Epub 2015 Oct 3.


A simple and highly sensitive sensor for the determination of diclofenac sodium based on gold nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode is reported. Scanning electron microscopy along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry was used to characterize the nanostructure and performance of the sensor and the results were compared with those obtained at the multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode and bare glassy carbon electrode. Under the optimized experimental conditions diclofenac sodium gave linear response over the range of 0.03-200μmolL(-1). The lower detection limits were found to be 0.02μmolL(-1). The effect of common interferences on the current response of DS was investigated. The practical application of the modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of diclofenac sodium in urine and pharmaceutical samples. This revealed that the gold nanoparticle/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode shows excellent analytical performance for the determination of diclofenac sodium in terms of a very low detection limit, high sensitivity, very good accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility.

Keywords: Diclofenac sodium determination; Electrochemical sensor; Gold nanoparticles; Multi-walled carbon nanotubes; Square wave voltammetry.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Diclofenac / analysis*
  • Diclofenac / urine*
  • Electrodes
  • Female
  • Gold / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metal Nanoparticles / chemistry*
  • Metal Nanoparticles / classification*
  • Nanotubes, Carbon / chemistry*


  • Nanotubes, Carbon
  • Diclofenac
  • Gold