Anti-cancer vaccination is a useful strategy to elicit antitumor immune responses, while overcoming immunosuppressive mechanisms. Whole tumor cells or lysates derived thereof hold more promise as cancer vaccines than individual tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), because vaccinal cells can elicit immune responses to multiple TAAs. Cancer cell-based vaccines can be autologous, allogeneic or xenogeneic. Clinical use of xenogeneic vaccines is advantageous in that they can be most effective in breaking the preexisting immune tolerance to TAAs. An attractive protocol would be to combine vaccinations with immunostimulating and/or immunosuppression-blocking modalities. It is reasonable to anticipate that combined immunotherapeutic strategies will allow for substantial improvements in clinical outcomes in the near future.
Keywords: Antitumor immunoprotection; Cancer cell-based vaccines; Combined immunotherapy; Immunosuppression.
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