We reviewed the results of silicone oil removal after vitreous surgery for recurrent retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy in 55 eyes. The minimum follow-up period was six months. Retinal detachment recurred in five eyes (9%). Evidence of recurrent epiretinal membrane formation at the time of or after silicone oil removal was noted in 21 eyes (38%). Penetrating keratoplasty combined with silicone oil removal was successful in five of six patients. Mild corneal changes noted in ten eyes (18%) remained the same or cleared in seven eyes after silicone oil removal. Overall, postoperative visual acuity improved in 24 eyes (44%), remained the same in 18 eyes (33%), and decreased in 13 (24%). In 22 eyes without clinical evidence of silicone-associated complications at the time of silicone oil removal, postoperative visual acuity remained unchanged or improved in 20 (91%).