Preventive effects of butyric acid, nicotinamide, calcium glucarate alone or in combination during the 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced mouse skin tumorigenesis via modulation of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway and associated micro RNAs

Biochimie. 2016 Feb;121:112-22. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2015.11.027. Epub 2015 Nov 30.


Skin cancer is among the most common cancers worldwide and identifiable molecular changes for early and late stage of skin tumorigenesis can suggest the better targets for its control. In this study, we investigated the status of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway followed by NF-κB, cyclin D1, MMP-9 and regulatory micro RNA during 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced mouse skin tumorigenesis and its prevention by butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG), individually or in combination with respect to time. DMBA upregulated the K-Ras, PI3K, Akt, NF-κB, cyclin D1 and MMP-9, but downregulated the PTEN in a time dependent manner. DMBA also reduced the levels of micoRNA let-7a but induced the levels of miR-21 and miR-20a as a function of time. BA, NA and CAG were found to prevent DMBA induced changes, but they were most effective when used together in a combination. Reduced let-7a and miR-211 were correlated with the overexpression of K-Ras and MMP-9. Overexpression of miR-21 and miR-20a was correlated with the down regulation of PTEN and overexpression of Cyclin D1. Collectively, the enhanced chemopreventive potential of natural compound in combination via regulation of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway along with regulatory micro RNAs provide a newer and effective mean for cancer management.

Keywords: Chemoprevention; Combination; Natural agents; PI3K/AKT; Skin tumors; miRNA.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene
  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • Blotting, Western
  • Butyric Acid / pharmacology*
  • Glucaric Acid / pharmacology*
  • Mice
  • MicroRNAs / genetics*
  • Niacinamide / pharmacology*
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / genetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism*
  • Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • Skin Neoplasms / metabolism*


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • MicroRNAs
  • Butyric Acid
  • Niacinamide
  • 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Glucaric Acid