Review objective: The objective of the scoping review is to identify and describe within the existing literature the characteristics (values, principles, components and suggest practical applications) of primary health care models of service delivery for Indigenous people. More specifically, the review question is:What are the characteristics (values, principles, components and suggested practical applications) of primary health care models of service delivery for Indigenous people?Findings from this scoping review will inform two systematic reviews. One of these will explore the acceptability and the other the effectiveness of identified characteristics.
Methodology: The scoping review will follow the JBI Scoping Review methodology as outlined in the 2015 Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' Manual.
Background: Indigenous populations in colonized countries experience worse health outcomes relative to their non-Indigenous counterparts. In Australia, in the period 2010 to 2012 the estimated gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians compared to non-Indigenous Australians was 10 years Similar gaps in life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous have been demonstrated in other countries, such as New Zealand, Canada and the United StatesThe gap in life expectancy and the health disadvantage experienced by Indigenous people is in part the result of mainstream health services not adequately meeting the health needs of Indigenous people and Indigenous people's inability to access mainstream services Part of the solution has been the establishment of primary health care services for and in many cases run by Indigenous people. Indigenous primary health services have been developed to provide culturally appropriate services that meet the needs of local Indigenous communities.In Australia, the first Aboriginal medical service was established in 1971 in Redfern, New South Wales, by "community activists in response to ongoing discrimination against Aboriginal people within mainstream health services to address the poor health and premature deaths of Aboriginal people, and to provide a culturally appropriate system of health care". There are now over 150 Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services in Australia. Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services are underpinned by common values such as culture, cultural respect, integrity, inclusion, self-determination, community control, sovereignty and leadership.Similar models of Indigenous health services exist in other countries, such as Māori health providers in New Zealand, First Nations and Inuit Health Authorities in Canada, and the Indian Health Services in the US. In New Zealand, Māori health providers deliver health and disability services to Māori and non-Māori clients. The difference between Māori health providers and mainstream services in New Zealand is that Māori health services are based on kaupapa, a plan or set of principles and ideas that informs behavior and customs, and the delivery framework which is distinctively Māori. First Nations and Inuit Health Authorities in Canada coordinate and integrate health programs and services to achieve better health outcomes for First Nations people. These community-based services largely focus on health promotion and prevention. First Nations and Inuit Health Authorities work under a unique health governance structure that includes local First Nations' leadership, based on the philosophy of self-governance and self-determination, which represent and address the health needs of First Nation communities. The Indian Health Service (IHS) in the US is responsible for providing comprehensive health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives. The IHS aims to raise the physical, mental, social and spiritual health of American Indians and Alaska Natives to the highest level, and its goal is "to ensure that comprehensive, culturally acceptable personal and public health services are available and accessible to American Indian and Alaska Native people". The IHS "grew out of a special government-to-government relationship between the federal government and Indian Tribes".Evidence suggests that "a strong primary health care sector is essential to the health and wellbeing of a population, and that a strong primary health care sector is associated with better population health, reduced costs of health care provision, and greater efficiency within the system". A study of Aboriginal Canadians shows that poor access and ineffective primary health care services were directly related to increased avoidable hospital admissions. In addition, a recent study in Australia focusing on the costs and the health outcomes associated with primary care use by Indigenous people with diabetes in remote communities in the Northern Territory demonstrates that improved access to primary health care which is responsive to the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people is both cost-effective and associated with better health outcomes.Given the strong link between primary health care and health outcomes and the significant contribution Indigenous health services make towards reducing the health disadvantage experienced by Indigenous people, it is important to understand the characteristics that support the delivery of health provided by Indigenous health services and their unique models. While there is not a clear definition in the literature about what a model of care or model of service delivery is, for the purpose of this review, it will encompass all factors involved in the delivery of care including but not limited to the vision, values and strategies that underpin the delivery of care, healthcare services and programs, governance and leadership, workforce, organization and supply, and infrastructure and other resources.The aim of this scoping review is to determine the characteristics of Indigenous primary health care models of service delivery by drawing on existing literature that look at the way in which services are delivered in this setting.An initial search of literature was conducted to establish whether there are studies with findings available to answer the review question, and whether there is a systematic or scoping review addressing the knowledge gap currently underway or published. There are no systematic or scoping reviews published or underway that address the question proposed by this review.