Post-bronchiolitis Use of Asthma Medication: A Prospective 1-year Follow-up Study

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016 Apr;35(4):363-8. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001017.


Background: Our aim was to evaluate the association between viral findings during bronchiolitis and the use of asthma controller medication (primary outcome) and systemic corticosteroids (secondary outcome) during the first post-bronchiolitis year.

Methods: We enrolled 408 children hospitalized for bronchiolitis at <24 months of age in a prospective, 3-center, 1-year follow-up study in Finland. Viruses were detected with polymerase chain reaction in nasopharyngeal aspirates. The parents underwent a structured interview during hospitalization. Twelve months later, the use of asthma medication was asked in a structured questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used for statistical analysis.

Results: In total, 365 (89%) children completed the 1-year follow-up. The use of long-term asthma controller medication was highest in the rhinovirus-positive group (61% vs. 15% in respiratory syncytial virus-positive group; adjusted odd ratios, 7.5; 95% confidence interval: 3.7-15.3), followed by children negative for both respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus (36%; adjusted odd ratios, 2.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.3-5.3). Likewise, rhinovirus etiology was associated with more courses of systemic corticosteroids during the follow-up. The main findings were similar in a subset of infants aged <12 months with first wheezing.

Conclusions: Children hospitalized for rhinovirus-positive bronchiolitis used long-term asthma controller medication more often than those hospitalized for rhinovirus-negative bronchiolitis during first year after hospitalization.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Asthma / complications*
  • Asthma / drug therapy*
  • Asthma / epidemiology
  • Bronchiolitis / complications*
  • Bronchiolitis / epidemiology
  • Bronchiolitis / virology
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Finland
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Virus Diseases / complications
  • Virus Diseases / virology


  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents