Big healthcare data-electronically recorded longitudinal data generated during the provision and administration of healthcare for millions of patients-have become essential for understanding the effectiveness and safety of therapeutics. They are most effectively used in concert with experimental and laboratory research throughout the life cycle of a drug. Applications range from providing phenotype and health outcomes information in genome-wide association studies to postmarketing studies that assure prescribers of the safety of approved drugs (Figure ). [Figure: see text].
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