Triangular fibrocartilage complex lesions: a classification

J Hand Surg Am. 1989 Jul;14(4):594-606. doi: 10.1016/0363-5023(89)90174-3.


Based on anatomic and biomechanical studies and review of our clinical experience of the past 10 years, a classification of injuries to the triangular fibrocartilage complex is presented. This classification is based on the clinical examination, routine x-ray films, wrist arthrograms, wrist arthroscopy, and wrist arthrotomy. The classification recognizes both traumatic and degenerative lesions. Traumatic lesions are classified according to their location. Degenerative lesions are classified by the location and severity of degenerative changes of the triangular fibrocartilage complex, ulnar head, ulnocarpal bones and lunotriquetral ligament.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Cartilage, Articular / injuries
  • Humans
  • Joint Diseases / classification
  • Osteoarthritis / physiopathology
  • Pain / physiopathology
  • Wrist Injuries / physiopathology
  • Wrist Joint* / physiopathology