Semiparametric regression for the weighted composite endpoint of recurrent and terminal events

Biostatistics. 2016 Apr;17(2):390-403. doi: 10.1093/biostatistics/kxv050. Epub 2015 Dec 14.


Recurrent event data are commonly encountered in clinical and epidemiological studies. A major complication arises when recurrent events are terminated by death. To assess the overall effects of covariates on the two types of events, we define a weighted composite endpoint as the cumulative number of recurrent and terminal events properly weighted by the relative severity of each event. We propose a semiparametric proportional rates model which specifies that the (possibly time-varying) covariates have multiplicative effects on the rate function of the weighted composite endpoint while leaving the form of the rate function and the dependence among recurrent and terminal events completely unspecified. We construct appropriate estimators for the regression parameters and the cumulative frequency function. We show that the estimators are consistent and asymptotically normal with variances that can be consistently estimated. We also develop graphical and numerical procedures for checking the adequacy of the model. We then demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed methods in simulation studies. Finally, we provide an application to a major cardiovascular clinical trial.

Keywords: Counting process; Dependent censoring; Intensity function; Inverse probability of censoring weighting; Mean function; Survival analysis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Computer Simulation
  • Critical Illness
  • Data Interpretation, Statistical*
  • Heart Failure / epidemiology*
  • Heart Failure / mortality*
  • Humans
  • Recurrence
  • Survival Analysis*