Inhalation Cancer Risk Assessment of Hexavalent Chromium Based on Updated Mortality for Painesville Chromate Production Workers

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. Mar-Apr 2016;26(2):224-31. doi: 10.1038/jes.2015.77. Epub 2015 Dec 16.

Abstract

The exposure-response for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI))-induced lung cancer among workers of the Painesville Ohio chromate production facility has been used internationally for quantitative risk assessment of environmental and occupational exposures to airborne Cr(VI). We updated the mortality of 714 Painesville workers (including 198 short-term workers) through December 2011, reconstructed exposures, and conducted exposure-response modeling using Poisson and Cox regressions to provide quantitative lung cancer risk estimates. The average length of follow-up was 34.4 years with 24,535 person-years at risk. Lung cancer was significantly increased for the cohort (standardized mortality ratio (SMR)=186; 95% confidence interval (CI) 145-228), for those hired before 1959, those with >30-year tenure, and those with cumulative exposure >1.41 mg/m(3)-years or highest monthly exposures >0.26 mg/m(3). Of the models assessed, the linear Cox model with unlagged cumulative exposure provided the best fit and was preferred. Smoking and age at hire were also significant predictors of lung cancer mortality. Adjusting for these variables, the occupational unit risk was 0.00166 (95% CI 0.000713-0.00349), and the environmental unit risk was 0.00832 (95% CI 0.00359-0.0174), which are 20% and 15% lower, respectively, than values developed in a previous study of this cohort.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Air Pollutants, Occupational / adverse effects
  • Chemical Industry
  • Chromium / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inhalation Exposure
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Lung Neoplasms / chemically induced*
  • Lung Neoplasms / mortality*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Occupational Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Occupational Diseases / mortality*
  • Occupational Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Ohio / epidemiology
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / epidemiology

Substances

  • Air Pollutants, Occupational
  • Chromium
  • chromium hexavalent ion