The causality between the HPV infection and the carcinoma of the uterine cervix is demonstrated. The benefits of the prophylactic HPV vaccine are emerging in the general population. This vaccine has no evident general side effect. So it is proposed for young women and young men. The commercialization of a nonavalent vaccine will increase its preventive activity. Already, international societies recommend using the HPV test for cervical carcinoma screening in replacement of the cytology in women more than 30-35 years old. In case of negative test, the interval between screenings can be increase until 5 years. In case of positive test, the cervical cytology is used for the triage, but other tests are under development. Due to the vaccine efficacy, the future modalities and the cost/benefits ratio of the screening should be questioned.