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Review
, 13 (3), 1559325815598308
eCollection

Global Assessment of Bisphenol A in the Environment: Review and Analysis of Its Occurrence and Bioaccumulation

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Review

Global Assessment of Bisphenol A in the Environment: Review and Analysis of Its Occurrence and Bioaccumulation

Jone Corrales et al. Dose Response.

Abstract

Because bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical, we examined over 500 peer-reviewed studies to understand its global distribution in effluent discharges, surface waters, sewage sludge, biosolids, sediments, soils, air, wildlife, and humans. Bisphenol A was largely reported from urban ecosystems in Asia, Europe, and North America; unfortunately, information was lacking from large geographic areas, megacities, and developing countries. When sufficient data were available, probabilistic hazard assessments were performed to understand global environmental quality concerns. Exceedances of Canadian Predicted No Effect Concentrations for aquatic life were >50% for effluents in Asia, Europe, and North America but as high as 80% for surface water reports from Asia. Similarly, maximum concentrations of BPA in sediments from Asia were higher than Europe. Concentrations of BPA in wildlife, mostly for fish, ranged from 0.2 to 13 000 ng/g. We observed 60% and 40% exceedences of median levels by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in Europe and Asia, respectively. These findings highlight the utility of coordinating global sensing of environmental contaminants efforts through integration of environmental monitoring and specimen banking to identify regions for implementation of more robust environmental assessment and management programs.

Keywords: biomonitoring; environmental exposure; probabilistic hazard assessment; urban ecosystems.

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of Conflicting Interests: The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Historic overview of the number of publications per year among geographic locations reporting detection of bisphenol A (BPA) in (A) surface water and effluent; (B) sediment, soil, biosolids, and air; and (C) wildlife collected in the field including mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, and plankton through December 2014.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Number of publications by continent or global region reporting detection of bisphenol A (BPA) in (A) surface water and effluent; (B) sediment, soil, biosolids, and air; and (C) wildlife collected in the field including mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, and plankton through December 2014. Color intensities from white to black indicate increasing number of studies; the number in the center of each region indicates the total number of publications.
Figure 3.
Figure 3.
Measured Environmental Concentration distributions of maximum reported bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in effluent (A) and surface water (B) in Asia, Europe, and North America. Vertical lines correspond to Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) in Canada (750 ng/L), the European Union (1500 ng/L), and Japan (1600 ng/L).
Figure 4.
Figure 4.
Measured environmental concentration distributions of maximum detected bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in sediments from Asia and Europe.
Figure 5.
Figure 5.
Measured human concentration distributions of median bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in urine sampled from populations in Asia, Europe, and North America. Vertical line corresponds to the median BPA urinary level reported by the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (NHANES 2009-2010).

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