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. 2015 Dec;110(8):1035-41.
doi: 10.1590/0074-02760150295. Epub 2015 Dec 11.

Effect of Myrrh and Thyme on Trichinella Spiralis Enteral and Parenteral Phases With Inducible Nitric Oxide Expression in Mice

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Free PMC article

Effect of Myrrh and Thyme on Trichinella Spiralis Enteral and Parenteral Phases With Inducible Nitric Oxide Expression in Mice

Rasha A H Attia et al. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Trichinellosis is a serious disease with no satisfactory treatment. We aimed to assess the effect of myrrh (Commiphora molmol) and, for the first time, thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) against enteral and encysted (parenteral) phases of Trichinella spiralis in mice compared with albendazole, and detect their effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Oral administration of 500 mg/kg of myrrh and thyme led to adult reduction (90.9%, 79.4%), while 1,000 mg/kg led to larvae reduction (79.6%, 71.3%), respectively. Administration of 50 mg/kg of albendazole resulted in adult and larvae reduction (94.2%, 90.9%). Positive immunostaining of inflammatory cells infiltrating intestinal mucosa and submucosa of all treated groups was detected. Myrrh-treated mice showed the highest iNOS expression followed by albendazole, then thyme. On the other hand, both myrrh and thyme-treated groups showed stronger iNOS expression of inflammatory cells infiltrating and surrounding encapsulated T. spiralis larvae than albendazole treated group. In conclusion, myrrh and thyme extracts are highly effective against both phases of T. spiralis and showed strong iNOS expressions, especially myrrh which could be a promising alternative drug. This experiment provides a basis for further exploration of this plant by isolation and retesting the active principles of both extracts against different stages of T. spiralis.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1. : skeletal muscle sections of Trichinella spiralisinfected mice stained by haematoxylin and eosin. A: day 30 of infected nontreated group showing multiple encysted larvae surrounded by intense inflammatory cellular infiltrate (200X); B: thyme treated group (1,000 mg/kg) at day 49 showing encysted larvae surrounded by thick intact capsule and intense inflammatory cellular infiltrate (400X); C: albendazole treated groups (50 mg/kg) at day 49 showing homogenised larvae, vacuolation and splitting of the capsule into thin layers (arrow) with diffuse inflammatory cellular infiltration surrounding and invading the capsule (arrow) (400X); D: myrrh treated group (1,000 mg/kg) at day 49 post-infection showing homogenised larvae with broken down incomplete capsule which is completely invaded and surrounded by inflammatory cells (400X).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2. : immunohistochemistry sections of skeletal muscle from infected mice using antiinducible NO synthase (iNOS) antibody. A: infected nontreated group at day 30 showing positive immunostaining of the cellular infiltrates surrounding encysted larvae (400X); B: albendazole treated groups (50 mg/kg) at day 49 showing strong immunostained inflammatory cells surrounding encysted larvae (400X); C: thyme treated group (1,000 mg/kg) at day 49 showing very strong iNOS expression of the cellular infiltrates surrounding the larvae (400X); D: myrrh treated group (1,000 mg/kg) at day 60 showing strong immunostained inflammatory cells infiltrating the muscle bundles (400X).

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