Ovarian cancer is the first cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. The poor over-all five year survival rate requires a specific procedure for early detection of ovarian carcinoma. An evaluation of ultrasonography as a screening test in early ovarian cancer is currently used in our Institute. A group of 500 volunteers without clinical symptoms, older than 45 years, and/or in postmenopausal period, were submitted to the procedure. We used a real-time mechanical sector scanner with 3 mHz transducer. The morphology and size of both ovaries were assessed. Abnormal results were obtained in 11 women. Four (4) postmenopausal patients underwent surgery. At the moment our study proves that ultrasonography is a valid procedure in the investigation of the ovaries in postmenopausal women. We need further evaluations to assess the real effectiveness of ultrasound examination as a screening test for early detection of ovarian cancer.