Background: Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC) has an emerging role in the treatment of peritoneal malignancies. The CRS-HIPEC approach has known treatment-related toxicities. This study sought to determine the predictors of major postoperative complications after CRS-HIPEC in a high-volume center.
Methods: From a single-institution database, this study investigated complications experienced by patients undergoing CRS-HIPEC. Multiple preoperative and operative factors were analyzed for their ability to predict 60-day Clavien grade 3 and greater (major) complications by logistic regression. A predictive model was created from preoperative factors using multivariate logistic regression. The model was tested by Akaike's information criterion, the Hosmer and Lemeshow Goodness-of-Fit Test, the receiver operating characteristic, and the Youden Index.
Results: The study evaluated 247 patients undergoing CRS-HIPEC. The primary tumor site was the appendix in 166 cases (67.2 %), the colorectal area in 51 cases (20.6 %), the peritoneum (mesothelioma) in 22 cases (8.9 %), the ovary in 5 cases (2 %), and the small bowel in 3 cases (1.2 %). The median peritoneal cancer index was 14 (range 0-29), and 235 patients (95.1 %) had a complete (CC-0/1) cytoreduction. Major complications occurred for 41 patients (16.6 %), classified as grade 3 in 33 cases (13.4 %), grade 4 in 5 cases (2 %), and grade 5 (deaths) in 3 cases (1.2 %). The factors predictive of major complications in the multivariate analysis were a Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score higher than 0 [odds ratio (OR), 2.505; p = 0.035], presence of preoperative symptoms (OR 1.951; p = 0.064), and prior resection status [no resection or prior CRS-HIPEC (OR 2.087) vs. prior resection without CRS-HIPEC (OR 3.209); p = 0.046]. These variables were used to create a tool predictive of postoperative complications.
Conclusion: Presence of symptoms, CCI, and prior resection status predict major complications and define a low-risk population after CRS-HIPEC.