High-flow support in very preterm infants in Australia and New Zealand

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2016 Sep;101(5):F401-3. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2015-309328. Epub 2015 Dec 17.


Background: Randomised trials suggest that high-flow (HF) therapy is comparable with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for postextubation respiratory support in neonates, and HF has been widely adopted in neonatal intensive care.

Methods: We conducted a population-based study of very preterm infants born <32 weeks' gestation within the Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network (ANZNN) data set from 2009 to 2012, who received respiratory support with HF.

Results: 3372 very preterm infants were treated with HF. HF use in this population increased significantly from 15% in 2009 to 35% in 2012. In 2012, 53% (542/1029) of extremely preterm infants born <28 weeks' gestation received HF. 98% (3308/3372) of infants had received endotracheal ventilation or CPAP prior to receiving HF. The maximum HF gas flow was ≤8 L/min in almost all infants.

Conclusions: HF use in extremely preterm and very preterm infants increased significantly within the ANZNN from 2009 to 2012.

Keywords: Infant, premature; Non-invasive ventilation; Respiratory distress syndrome, newborn.

MeSH terms

  • Australia
  • Continuous Positive Airway Pressure / methods*
  • Continuous Positive Airway Pressure / statistics & numerical data*
  • Gestational Age
  • Humans
  • Infant, Extremely Premature*
  • Intensive Care, Neonatal / methods*
  • Intensive Care, Neonatal / statistics & numerical data*
  • New Zealand