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Review
, 350 (6267), aaa9886

Opportunities and Challenges in Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy

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Review

Opportunities and Challenges in Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy

Frances M Ross. Science.

Abstract

Transmission electron microscopy offers structural and compositional information with atomic resolution, but its use is restricted to thin, solid samples. Liquid samples, particularly those involving water, have been challenging because of the need to form a thin liquid layer that is stable within the microscope vacuum. Liquid cell electron microscopy is a developing technique that allows us to apply the powerful capabilities of the electron microscope to imaging and analysis of liquid specimens. We describe its impact in materials science and biology. We discuss how its applications have expanded via improvements in equipment and experimental techniques, enabling new capabilities and stimuli for samples in liquids, and offering the potential to solve grand challenge problems.

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