Islet amyloid polypeptide is a novel 37 amino-acid-residues polypeptide which has been isolated from amyloid deposits in an insulinoma, and in human and cat islets of Langerhans. The molecule has 46% homology with the calcitonin gene-related peptide. Light microscopy examination of the pancreas shows that islet amyloid polypeptide immunoreactivity is restricted to the islet B cells. The present study utilized a rabbit antiserum against a synthetic peptide corresponding to positions 20-29 of islet amyloid polypeptide, a sequence without any amino-acid identity with calcitonin gene-related peptide. By applying the immunogold technique at the ultrastructural level, it was shown that both insulin and islet amyloid polypeptide immunoreactivity occurs in the central granular core of the human B cell secretory granules, while the A cells remain unlabelled. The demonstration that islet amyloid polypeptide is a granular protein of the B cells may indicate that it is released together with insulin. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the functional role of islet amyloid polypeptide.