High recurrence rate is one representative characteristic of bladder cancer. Intravesical therapy after transurethral resection is often performed in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) to prevent recurrence. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and several anticancer/antibiotic agents, such as mitomycin C and epirubicin, are commonly used for this therapy. BCG treatment demonstrates strong anticancer effects. However, it is also characterized by a high frequency of adverse events. On the other hand, although intravesical therapies using other anticancer and antibiotic agents are relatively safe, their anticancer effects are lower than those obtained using BCG. Thus, the appropriate selection of agents for intravesical therapy is important to improve treatment outcomes and maintain the quality of life of patients with NMIBC. In this review, we discuss the predictive value of various histological and molecular markers for recurrence after intravesical therapy in patients with NMIBC.