Objectives. Some evidence has pointed out that vitamin D plays a significant role in reducing the incidence of autoimmune diseases, especially autoimmune thyroid diseases. The authors aimed to examine the relationship between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and thyroid autoantibody in a population-based health survey of Xinjiang Chinese population. Subjects and Methods. A total of 1714 Chinese adults were analyzed. 25(OH)D, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid function were measured. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 28.3% in Hans and 9.3% in Uyghurs, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 61.6% in Hans and 87.6% in Uyghurs. Overall prevalence of TgAb positivity was 6.2% (0.9% males; 5.3% females). In female subjects, mean serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in Hans and Uyghurs compared with males, and the difference was statistically significant. Importantly, after adjusting for age and ethnicity, a negative correlation (r = -0.121, P = 0.014) was recognized between 25(OH)D and TgAb levels only in female subjects. Conclusion. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are prevalent among Chinese adults. Low serum 25(OH)D is related to the presence of TgAb in females. The causal effect of low vitamin D level on thyroid autoimmunity should be studied further more.