Protective Effect of D-Limonene against Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Damage in Human Lens Epithelial Cells via the p38 Pathway

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016:2016:5962832. doi: 10.1155/2016/5962832. Epub 2015 Nov 23.

Abstract

Oxidative stress, as mediated by ROS, is a significant factor in initiating the development of age-associated cataracts; D-limonene is a common natural terpene with powerful antioxidative properties which occurs naturally in a wide variety of living organisms. It has been shown to have antioxidant effect; we found that D-limonene can effectively prevent the oxidative damage caused by H2O2 and propose that the main mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of D-limonene is the inhibition of HLECs apoptosis. In the present study, we used confocal-fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry analysis, Hoechst staining, H2DCFDA staining, transmission electron microscopy, and immunoblot analysis; the results revealed that slightly higher concentrations of D-limonene (125-1800 μM) reduced the H2O2-induced ROS generation and inhibited the H2O2-induced caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation and decreased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Furthermore, it inhibited H2O2-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Thus, we conclude that D-limonene could effectively protect HLECs from H2O2-induced oxidative stress and that its antioxidative effect is significant, thereby increasing the cell survival rate.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Retracted Publication

MeSH terms

  • Cell Line
  • Cyclohexenes / pharmacology*
  • Epithelial Cells / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Lens, Crystalline / metabolism*
  • Limonene
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System / drug effects*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Terpenes / pharmacology*
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism*

Substances

  • Cyclohexenes
  • Terpenes
  • Limonene
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases