Instruments to assess and measure personal and environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic field exposures

Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 2016 Mar;39(1):29-42. doi: 10.1007/s13246-015-0412-z. Epub 2015 Dec 18.


Radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure of human populations is increasing due to the widespread use of mobile phones and other telecommunication and broadcasting technologies. There are ongoing concerns about potential short- and long-term public health consequences from RF-EMF exposures. To elucidate the RF-EMF exposure-effect relationships, an objective evaluation of the exposures with robust assessment tools is necessary. This review discusses and compares currently available RF-EMF exposure assessment instruments, which can be used in human epidemiological studies. Quantitative assessment instruments are either mobile phone-based (apps/software-modified and hardware-modified) or exposimeters. Each of these tool has its usefulness and limitations. Our review suggests that assessment of RF-EMF exposures can be improved by using these tools compared to the proxy measures of exposure (e.g. questionnaires and billing records). This in turn, could be used to help increase knowledge about RF-EMF exposure induced health effects in human populations.

Keywords: Exposimeters; Mobile phone exposures; Radiofrequency-electromagnetic exposure assessment; Radiofrequency-electromagnetic exposures; Radiofrequency-electromagnetic exposures tools.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cell Phone
  • Electromagnetic Fields*
  • Environmental Exposure*
  • Environmental Monitoring / instrumentation*
  • Humans
  • Radio Waves*