Laryngeal cancer (LC) is one of the most prevalent types of head and neck cancer. An increasing interest has been focused on the role of microRNA (miRNAs) in LC development. The study group consisted of 135 larynx cancer patients and 170 cancer-free individuals. Nine polymorphisms of pre-miRNA processing genes, DROSHA (rs6877842), DGCR8 (rs3757, rs417309, and rs1640299), RAN (rs14035), XPO5 (rs11077), DICER1 (rs13078 and rs3742330) and TARBP2 (rs784567), were performed by TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay. It was found that the frequency of the GT and the TT polymorphic variants of XPO5 gene were higher in LC patients than in controls (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.000183, resp.). In turn, the frequency of the CT genotype of RAN gene was higher in controls than in LC patients (p < 0.0001). The TT and the AG of DICER1 gene (p = 0.034697 for rs13078 and p = 0.0004 for rs3742330) as well as the AG and the GG genotypes of TARBP2 gene (p = 0.008335 and p < 0.0001, resp.) were associated with higher risk of LC occurrence. Our data suggested that polymorphisms of miRNA processing genes might be useful as predictive factors for the LC development.