The gut bacteria exert phenotypic traits to the host but the factors which determine the gut bacterial profile (GBP) is poorly understood. This study aimed to understand the effect of ethnicity and geography on GBP of Mongoloid and Proto-Australoid tribes of India. Fecal bacterial diversity was studied in fifteen tribal populations representing four geographic regions (Assam, Telangana, Manipur and Sikkim) by DGGE followed by NGS analysis on Illumina MiSeq platform. Geography and diet had significant effect on GBP of the Indian tribes which was dominated by Prevotella. The effects were more prominent with lower taxonomic levels, indicating probable functional redundancy of the core GBP. A comparison with the worldwide data revealed that GBP of the Indian population was similar to the Mongolian population (Mongolia). The bacterial genera Faecalibacterium, Eubacterium, Clostridium, Blautia, Ruminococcus and Roseburia were found to be core genera in the representative populations of the world.